Data exfiltration mitre

Data is encrypted before being exfiltrated in order to hide the information that is being exfiltrated from detection or to make the exfiltration less conspicuous upon inspection by a defender. The encryption is performed by a utility, programming library, or custom algorithm on the data itself and is considered separate from any encryption performed by the command and control or file transfer protocol.

Common file archive formats that can encrypt files are RAR and zip. Attackers commonly encrypt exfiltrated sensitive files in an attempt to avoid detection by Data Loss Prevention DLP technologies and to stifle later manual analysis.

data exfiltration mitre

Zeek will log all observable files traversing the sensor. An encrypted file may stand out as the analyzers will not parse encrypted traffic. By configuring file extraction, the file will be automatically extracted and a variety of tools will determine that the file contains a high amount of entropy, suggesting that it is encrypted.

This package helps defenders identify the typical direction and volume of data transfer between two hosts and to identify when it changes.

Corelight Sensors run the Zeek NSM, which includes an event-driven scripting language that provides the primary means for an organization to extend and customize Corelight Sensors. The scripts alert Corelight Sensors about pre-defined events then capture information about that connection and trigger a function. For example, the ssl. Learn more at GitHub.

data exfiltration mitre

Corelight, Inc. Find a Reseller Partner Program Contact us. How Corelight helps Attackers commonly encrypt exfiltrated sensitive files in an attempt to avoid detection by Data Loss Prevention DLP technologies and to stifle later manual analysis.

Scripts and resources: Producer-consumer ratio script This package helps defenders identify the typical direction and volume of data transfer between two hosts and to identify when it changes. Zeek scripting language Corelight Sensors run the Zeek NSM, which includes an event-driven scripting language that provides the primary means for an organization to extend and customize Corelight Sensors. Zeek Logs to use: conn. Lateral Movement. Credential Access. Initial Access. Defense Evasion.

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The MITRE ATT&CK Framework: Exfiltration

If nothing happens, download the GitHub extension for Visual Studio and try again. A collection of open source and commercial tools that aid in red team operations. This repository will help you during red team engagement.

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If you want to contribute to this list send me a pull request. Aggressor Scripts is a scripting language for red team operations and adversary simulations inspired by scriptable IRC clients and bots. Skip to content. Dismiss Join GitHub today GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together.

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How can I help prevent, detect and remediate data exfiltration?

Outputs reports to aid in correlating targets across sites. It attempts to find relationships between systems within a large dataset. To be used for pentesting or educational purposes only. The default application a simple WebBrowser widget that point to a website of your choice. It utilizes publicly demonstrated techniques from several different sources.

Bypass software restrictions.Exfiltration refers to techniques and attributes that result or aid in the adversary removing files and information from the targeted mobile device. In the mobile environment, mobile devices are frequently connected to networks outside enterprise control such as cellular networks or public Wi-Fi networks.

Adversaries could attempt to evade detection by communicating on these networks, and potentially even by using non-Internet Protocol mechanisms such as Short Message Service SMS. Adversaries can communicate using cellular networks rather than enterprise Wi-Fi in order to bypass enterprise network monitoring systems.

Adversaries may communicate over a commonly used port to bypass firewalls or network detection systems and to blend with normal network activity to avoid more detailed inspection. Data is encrypted before being exfiltrated in order to hide the information that is being exfiltrated from detection or to make the exfiltration less conspicuous upon inspection by a defender.

The encryption is performed by a utility, programming library, or custom algorithm on the data itself and is considered separate from any encryption performed by the command and control or file transfer protocol. Common file formats that can encrypt files are RAR and zip. The sub-techniques beta is now live! Read the release blog post for more info. Priority Definition Planning. Priority Definition Direction. Target Selection. Technical Information Gathering. People Information Gathering.

Organizational Information Gathering. Technical Weakness Identification. People Weakness Identification. Organizational Weakness Identification. Persona Development. Build Capabilities. Test Capabilities.An adversary may compress data e. The compression is done separately from the exfiltration channel and is performed using a custom program or algorithm, or a more common compression library or utility such as 7zip, RAR, ZIP, or zlib. APT3 has used tools to compress data before exfilling it.

Calisto uses the zip -r command to compress the data collected on the local system. CopyKittens uses ZPP, a. Daserf hides collected data in password-protected. Denis compressed collected data using zlib. Dragonfly 2.

Modules can be pushed to and executed by Duqu that copy data to a staging area, compress it, and XOR encrypt it. Empire can ZIP directories on the target system. Epic compresses the collected data with bzip2 before sending it to the C2 server. Exaramel for Windows automatically compresses files before sending them to the C2 server. Gallmaker has used WinZip, likely to archive data prior to exfiltration. Honeybee adds collected files to a temp.

The Ke3chang group has been known to compress data before exfiltration. Lazarus Group malware IndiaIndia saves information gathered about the victim to a file that is compressed with Zlib, encrypted, and uploaded to a C2 server. Lazarus Group malware RomeoDelta archives specified directories in. Lurid can compress data before sending it. Machete stores zipped files with profile data from installed web browsers.

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Magic Hound has used RAR to stage and compress local folders. Micropsia creates a RAR archive based on collected files on the victim's machine. MuddyWater has used the native Windows cabinet creation tool, makecab.

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OopsIE compresses collected files with both the GZipStream class and a simple character replacement scheme before sending them to its C2 server.

PoshC2 contains a module for compressing data using ZIP. After collecting documents from removable media, Prikormka compresses the collected files.

Proton zips up files before exfiltrating them. Pupy can compress data with Zip before sending it over C2. RunningRAT contains code to compress files. SeaDuke compressed data with zlib prior to sending it over C2. Soft Cell used winrar to compress and encrypt stolen data prior to exfiltration.

Sowbug extracted documents and bundled them into a RAR archive. Threat Group has used RAR to compress, encrypt, and password-protect files prior to exfiltration. The ZLib backdoor compresses communications using the standard Zlib compression library.

Network intrusion prevention or data loss prevention tools may be set to block specific file types from leaving the network over unencrypted channels. An adversary may move to an encrypted channel or use other mechanisms of encapsulating the traffic in these situations.

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Compression software and compressed files can be detected in many ways. Common utilities that may be present on the system or brought in by an adversary may be detectable through process monitoring and monitoring for command-line arguments for known compression utilities.

This may yield a significant amount of benign events, depending on how systems in the environment are typically used. If the communications channel is unencrypted, compressed files can be detected in transit during exfiltration with a network intrusion detection or data loss prevention system analyzing file headers.

The sub-techniques beta is now live!Exfiltration consists of techniques that adversaries may use to steal data from your network. This can include compression and encryption. Techniques for getting data out of a target network typically include transferring it over their command and control channel or an alternate channel and may also include putting size limits on the transmission. Data, such as sensitive documents, may be exfiltrated through the use of automated processing or Scripting after being gathered during Collection.

An adversary may compress data e. The compression is done separately from the exfiltration channel and is performed using a custom program or algorithm, or a more common compression library or utility such as 7zip, RAR, ZIP, or zlib.

Data is encrypted before being exfiltrated in order to hide the information that is being exfiltrated from detection or to make the exfiltration less conspicuous upon inspection by a defender.

The encryption is performed by a utility, programming library, or custom algorithm on the data itself and is considered separate from any encryption performed by the command and control or file transfer protocol.

Common file archive formats that can encrypt files are RAR and zip. An adversary may exfiltrate data in fixed size chunks instead of whole files or limit packet sizes below certain thresholds.

This approach may be used to avoid triggering network data transfer threshold alerts. Data exfiltration is performed with a different protocol from the main command and control protocol or channel. The data is likely to be sent to an alternate network location from the main command and control server. Different channels could include Internet Web services such as cloud storage. Data exfiltration is performed over the Command and Control channel.

Data is encoded into the normal communications channel using the same protocol as command and control communications. Exfiltration could occur over a different network medium than the command and control channel. If the command and control network is a wired Internet connection, the exfiltration may occur, for example, over a WiFi connection, modem, cellular data connection, Bluetooth, or another radio frequency RF channel.

Adversaries could choose to do this if they have sufficient access or proximity, and the connection might not be secured or defended as well as the primary Internet-connected channel because it is not routed through the same enterprise network. In certain circumstances, such as an air-gapped network compromise, exfiltration could occur via a physical medium or device introduced by a user.

Such media could be an external hard drive, USB drive, cellular phone, MP3 player, or other removable storage and processing device. The physical medium or device could be used as the final exfiltration point or to hop between otherwise disconnected systems. Data exfiltration may be performed only at certain times of day or at certain intervals. This could be done to blend traffic patterns with normal activity or availability.

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The sub-techniques beta is now live! Read the release blog post for more info. Priority Definition Planning.

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Priority Definition Direction. Target Selection. Technical Information Gathering.

data exfiltration mitre

People Information Gathering. Organizational Information Gathering. Technical Weakness Identification.Data, such as sensitive documents, may be exfiltrated through the use of automated processing or scripting after being gathered during collection.

Attackers may use automated tools to exfiltrate sensitive data from a compromised host to an external server. For example, a custom tool uploading compressed or encrypted data to a website, FTP server, or email account. Zeek can monitor HTTP, FTP, and email traffic, allowing defenders to identify high volumes of traffic to unknown hosts or connections that occur on a regular schedule. Any point in the network where Corelight sees this traffic will be monitored and logged in the protocol-specific log.

data exfiltration mitre

Depending on the transfer method, Zeek will track the names of the files and the method of exfiltration. This package helps defenders identify the typical direction and volume of data transfer between two hosts and to identify when it changes. Corelight Sensors run the Zeek NSM, which includes an event-driven scripting language that provides the primary means for an organization to extend and customize Corelight Sensors. The scripts alert Corelight Sensors about pre-defined events then capture information about that connection and trigger a function.

For example, the ssl. Learn more at GitHub. Corelight, Inc. Find a Reseller Partner Program Contact us. How Corelight helps Attackers may use automated tools to exfiltrate sensitive data from a compromised host to an external server. Scripts and resources: Producer-consumer ratio script This package helps defenders identify the typical direction and volume of data transfer between two hosts and to identify when it changes. Zeek scripting language Corelight Sensors run the Zeek NSM, which includes an event-driven scripting language that provides the primary means for an organization to extend and customize Corelight Sensors.

Zeek Logs to use: conn. Lateral Movement. Credential Access. Initial Access.

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Defense Evasion. Download coverage chart. Techniques Covered.

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Privacy policy Terms of Use.Data exfiltration is performed over the Command and Control channel. Data is encoded into the normal communications channel using the same protocol as command and control communications.

APT3 has a tool that exfiltrates data over the C2 channel. Astaroth exfiltrates collected information from its r1. Bankshot exfiltrates data over its C2 channel. CallMe exfiltrates data to its C2 server over the same protocol as C2 communications. Empire can send data gathered from a target through the command and control channel. A Gamaredon Group file stealer transfers collected files to a hardcoded C2 server. Ke3chang transferred compressed and encrypted RAR files containing exfiltration through the established backdoor command and control channel during operations.

Kimsuky has exfiltrated data over its email C2 channel. Lazarus Group malware IndiaIndia saves information gathered about the victim to a file that is uploaded to one of its 10 C2 servers. Another Lazarus Group malware sample also performs exfiltration over the C2 channel. LightNeuron exfiltrates data over its email C2 channel. Machete 's collected data is exfiltrated over the same channel used for C2.

MobileOrder exfiltrates data to its C2 server over the same protocol as C2 communications. OopsIE can upload files from the victim's machine to its C2 server.

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Proxysvc performs data exfiltration over the control server channel using a custom protocol. Psylo exfiltrates data to its C2 server over the same protocol as C2 communications. Pteranodon exfiltrates screenshot files to its C2 server. Pupy can send screenshots files, keylogger data, files, and recorded audio back to the C2 server.

After data is collected by Stealth Falcon malware, it is exfiltrated over the existing C2 channel. Network intrusion detection and prevention systems that use network signatures to identify traffic for specific adversary malware can be used to mitigate activity at the network level.

Signatures are often for unique indicators within protocols and may be based on the specific obfuscation technique used by a particular adversary or tool, and will likely be different across various malware families and versions. Adversaries will likely change tool command and control signatures over time or construct protocols in such a way to avoid detection by common defensive tools. Detection for command and control applies.

Analyze network data for uncommon data flows e. Processes utilizing the network that do not normally have network communication or have never been seen before are suspicious. Analyze packet contents to detect communications that do not follow the expected protocol behavior for the port that is being used. The sub-techniques beta is now live! Read the release blog post for more info.

Priority Definition Planning.


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